Significant independent clinical research using PAL® technology with premature infants has been conducted.

    1. Chorna OD, Slaughter JC, Wang L, et al. A pacifier-activated music player with mother’s voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2014; 133 (3): 462-468. Click Here
    2. Standley, JM, Cassidy J, Grant R, et al. The effects of music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking on nipple feeding of premature infants. Pediatric Nursing. 2010; 36 (3): 138-146. Click Here
    3. Standley JM. The effect of music-reinforced non-nutritive sucking on feeding rate of premature infants. Pediatric Nursing. 2003; 18 (3): 169-173. Click Here
    4. Whipple, J. The effect of music-reinforced non-nutritive sucking on state of preterm, low birth weight infants experiencing heel stick. Journal of Music Therapy. 2008: 45 (3): 227-272 Click Here
    5. Casper J. Anthony, Fifer William P., “Of Human Bonding: Newborns Prefer Their Mother’s Voice”, Science, Vol. 208. Issue 4448, June 6, 1980. Click Here

Vanderbilt Research Study

Vanderbilt Medical School Research Study. “A Pacifier-activated Music Player with Mother’s Voice Improves Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants.” Pediatrics, February 2014.

Click here for Pediatrics abstract. Full text available through your hospital’s subscription to Pediatrics.

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